A Brief History of Printed Circuit Boards

You may have seen, in one way or another, an electronic device opened up for repair. The flat board that holds the electronic components is called a printed circuit board or commonly known as the PCB. The PCB has patterns of thin copper lines or strips on one (or both) of its surfaces. This copper pattern acts like wires that connect together the electronic components that form the circuit.

pcbDuring the early years of electronics design, components were connected using a point-to-point method wherein sockets and wires are used to connect one component to another. Imagine the old telephone switchboard with all the wires dangling and exposed – that was what the old method of electronics connections looked like.

Although this method was effective, it was very inefficient because it was prone to constant breakdown as well as short circuits. Since wires and components are exposed to the elements, they are subject to wear and tear. They were made using materials like Masonite, and the electronic components would be attached by rivets and screws and then connected with wires.
In 1943, Paul Eisler, an inventor and engineer from the United Kingdom, came up with a method of etching copper foil onto a non-conductive flat material. This gave birth to the early forms of the printed circuit board. The idea started picking up during the Second World War, where the use of PCB proved essential in manufacturing communications modules and other important equipment.

The double-sided printed circuit board with plated through holes was invented in 1947, merely a couple of years after the war. With drilled holes and with both surfaces of the PCB having copper strips for connecting electronic components, it became easier to come up with circuit designs – this led to the production of smaller, more compact electronic devices.
The earlier PCBs had copper patterns on one surface or both surfaces of the board wherein electronic components are either soldered or riveted in place.

Advancements in materials technology gave birth to Printed circuit boards that are composed of multiple layers, with each layer having different copper strip patterns so more electronic components can be connected using a single board. During the 1980s, the surface mount technology was introduced and it revolutionized the electronics industry. Using the surface mount method, electronic components are stamped onto the board, eliminating the need to solder components.

Throughout the advances in miniaturization and large-scale integration, printed circuit boards have proven to be efficient and useful in electronics design. Electronic circuits have become smaller and even more efficient, which in turn led to lower production costs. Old computers that used to occupy a big room were reduced to a size that would fit a small table, despite having even more power. If it wasn’t for PCBs, electronic devices would be bulky and would occupy large rooms and areas. These devices will also generate too much heat and will be far from portable.

Today, printed circuit boards can be seen and used everywhere. From your mobile phone to your big flat screen television, PCBs have evolved through time. Miniaturization technology has led to the manufacture of densely-packed circuit boards. Future designs may even led to the production of 3-dimensional plastic boards that can hold more complex and denser webs of circuitry involving copper, aluminum, or gold strips; wires and embedded components would also be integrated in new, much more discreet ways.

All in all, printed circuit boards are expected to evolve, with both technology and advancements directing its development. Surely, the PCB industry will remain profitable for the foreseeable future; it might even become much more financially rewarding.

Planning for Death and Cremation

For any family, death is a hard obstacle to go through. Experiencing the loss of a very important person in your life is indeed a sad experience, but you have to go through it. Every day, people die but many are also born. Death is a part of the natural life process and sooner or later, you’ll have to go through it.

CremationPlanning is vital part of every activity you do – a party, and event or even a meeting, and planning is also important even in death. When someone dies, it is better to be prepared than have nothing. That’s why there are life insurances – so that when the unexpected happens, you are prepared.

Why Plan?

Planning is important not only for people who are already on the verge of dying. It is important for every family member to talk about their plans for their funerals because with planning, you will make things easier both for you and your family.

Avoid Misunderstanding

When death comes, planning will eventually take place. You have to plan for many things including the visitors, the accommodation, and most importantly, the way you have to bury your deceased. During these times, misunderstanding may arise especially as to how the family will bury the dead. To avoid this, it is better to make plans and arrangements beforehand.

Be Ready For Expenses

Having a funeral service may cost you some money, so better be ready for the expenses. Planning helps you be better prepared mentally and financially. Saving a few bucks may help be ready you for the future.


Inheritance sometimes becomes a problem to the family members left, especially if you leave some good fortune behind. To avoid future dispute, it’s good to get a lawyer decide whether to divide your properties among you family members or donate it to charity.

Say Goodbyes

As you plan, you will slowly come to accept that the end MAY be near and you will have the chance to think about things and properly say your farewell to the ones important to you.

Your Options

As planning comes, you have to consider many options. From the type of ceremony you want to the location and even on how you would want to be buried. Although very sensitive, these things are better discussed sooner than later.

There are two common types of burial you can choose from. There is the natural burial and there is also cremation, and of course, everything will be according to your preferences.

Natural Burial

You may be familiar with the natural burial. This includes the typical ceremonies and the burying the body in the ground while witnessed by family members.


Cremation is a type of burial that is more common in the west. In this process, the body of the deceased in subjected to extreme heat (ranging from 1400 to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit) until it is reduced to its basic compositions and only ashes remain. With cremation, you can choose to either keep or bury the ashes. You can keep it in an urn and put it in your home. Keeping it may help with the recovery of your family from the loss you have experienced.

It will also save you the hassle of going to the cemetery every now and then, especially if you are a busy person. Keeping an urn in your house will help you feel the bond you have with a person, even when he/she is already dead. However, if you do not intend to keep it, you can also scatter the ashes in a place where the deceased person’s is most attached to.

Whether you are in need of traditional funeral options or cremation services, we can accommodate any need, and any budget.

Advantages of Hiring a SEO Company

If you are looking to increase the exposure of your website, Search Engine Optimization or SEO is your best option. It can promote the visibility of your website in the search engines such as Google. As a result, the number of your website visitors or website traffic will dramatically increase. You have the choice to do it yourself but of course, you will have no guarantee regarding the results that you will get.

If you want to get favorable results, then it would be better to hire an SEO company. You will be able to save lots of your precious time and be assured of the results if you are aware of the benefits of getting the services of New York SEO companies.

You can Focus on your Business

seoBeing able to save time is very important to business people. Search Engine Optimization takes much time. If you do SEO yourself, you will not have enough time to spend for your business in the first place. You can concentrate on the vital aspects of your business if you simply hire an SEO company. You can just manage your business as usual if you leave the marketing, ranking and optimization concerns to the SEO company.

You will Not Need to Study Search Engine Algorithms

In order to become successful or even just to get any favorable results from SEO, you have to understand the search engine algorithms first. Studying this in order to master Search Engine Optimization will take weeks or even months since you also have to understand each aspect of how search engines rank sites. If you hire a reliable SEO company, you can free yourself from this task which can consume a lot of your time.

Professional Work Quality

You will be sure that you are getting a systematic implementation of search engine optimization if you opt for the services of a reliable SEO company. This is simply because it is their line of work. If you are able to find one that has years of experience, you will feel safe with the fact that they already have the effective processes and systems in place. You can also expect to receive updates regularly as well as periodic reports regarding the improvements and performance of the project. This way, you will know how your website is developing as well as how the SEO company is performing.

You should get comprehensive and detailed reports regarding the improvements in search engine rankings as the SEO work is done. See to it that the reports you will get follow specific standards in the field. In addition, you have to be certain that the people who will be assigned to develop your website are highly experienced and competent in increasing the visibility of a website on search engines. This way, you can expect them to give you favorable results in a shorter duration without providing them much of your involvement.

These advantages of getting the services of New York SEO companies are enough reasons why you have to hand the job to a reliable company instead of doing the work yourself. You will not have a guarantee as to how long it will take before you can get results if you do SEO yourself. It can even cause this vital aspect of your internet business drag. Aside from that, there is no telling how much time the learning process will take so you will understand the benchmarks, tools and metrics that will make your job more effective.

You might end up frustrating yourself since you will find it hard to achieve the goals you want. You will have the risk of losing opportunities since your time will be totally consumed. The worst part of it is putting your business at risk since you will not have enough time to manage it in the first place.

If you have already decided to hire an SEO firm, you have to be diligent in looking for a legitimate and trusted one. Make sure that it has expert professionals who are highly experienced and can help you achieve your goals by developing your website. You need to be aware that there are lots of New York SEO companies that have just popped out of nowhere. They are run by amateurs who are incapable of delivering favorable results in a short period of time.

You can be sure that you are not wasting your time and resources if you give some efforts in finding and familiarizing the company you are planning to hire first. You can also be certain that you will be able to enjoy the benefits mentioned above if you do so.

Fortunately for you, you have come into the right place. You have to look no further. With us, you can be certain of getting the results in a short amount of time. We can assure you that you will experience more benefits than what you have learned here. This is one of the business people’s most trusted New York SEO companies. Let us start developing your website today so it can become one of those that we have included on the top of the SERP.